Neurofeedback training can be beneficial for patients with many prevailing psychological conditions. These include difficulties with attention and arousal, mood and emotion, learning and memory and the control of behaviour. It is also efficacious for substance abuse disorders (alcohol, psychoactive drugs) and in ameliorating the effects of traumatic stress. During training, sensors are placed on the scalp to detect, amplify and record specific brain activity that appears to be dysregulated, as based on Quantitative EEG (QEEG), a valid and highly reliable assessment of brain function. Click here for more information on QEEG and brain mapping.
Resulting information is fed back to the patient instantaneously with the conceptual understanding that changes in the feedback signal indicate whether or not the brain activity is within the designed “normal” range. Based on this feedback, various principles of learning, and practitioner guidance, changes in brain patterns occur and are associated with positive changes in psychical, emotional and cognitive states. Often the patient is not consciously aware of the mechanisms by which such changes are accomplished although people routinely acquire a “felt” sense of these positive changes and often are able to access these states outside the feedback session. And with sufficient successful training, changes are usually long-lasting to permanent. Neurofeedback meets the American Psychological Association’s definition of an evidence-based intervention since neurofeedback is “the integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics , culture and preference”.
Some references (Check on Google scholar to see article abstracts. Search using authors names and key words from title. Some articles may be freely downloadable).
- Arns, M. yet al (2009) Efficacy of neurofeedback treatment in ADHD: the effects on inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity: a meta-analysis. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience 40: 180-189.
- Gevensleben, H (2009) Is neurofeedback an efficacious treatment for ADHD? A randomised controlled clinical trial. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 50:780–789
- Hammond, DC (2005) Neurofeedback with anxiety and affective disorders. Child Adolesc Psychiatric Clin N Am 14: 105– 123
- Heinrich, H, Gevensleben, H and Strehl, U (2007) Annotation: Neurofeedback – train your brain to train behaviour. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 48:3–16 Link
- Hirshberg, LM, Chiu, S, Frazier, JA (2005) Emerging brain-based interventions for children and adolescents: overview and clinical perspective Child Adolesc Psychiatric Clin N Am 14: 1 – 19
- Klimesch, W., 1999. EEG alpha and theta oscillations reflect cognitive and memory performance: a review and analysis. Brain Research Review 29, 169-195.
- Kropotov, J, (2009) Quantitative EEG, event-related potentials and neurotherapy. Elsevier: Amsterdam.
- Nash, JK (2005) Neurotherapy with adults. Journal of Adult Development, 12: 105-112.
- Sokhadze, TM, Cannon, RL, Trudeau, DL (2008) EEG Biofeedback as a Treatment for Substance Use Disorders: Review, Rating of Efficacy, and Recommendations for Further Research. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback (2008) 33:1–28